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Formation of Bluff Lake
The Bluff Lake area supports native short-grass prairie bluffs surrounding a 9-acre lake adjacent to a stream corridor. Time and geologic processes formed the bluffs long ago when streams flowed from the mountains towards the plains and deposited layers of soil. Prior to pioneer settlement of the area, Native Americans lived on the plains, hunting bison and deer on the bluffs. They depended upon the land for survival and the resources the Bluff Lake area provided sustained them for many years.
Sand Creek Lateral
The history of Bluff Lake can be drawn from an 1899 Willits farm map which shows an outline of Bluff Lake on property owned by the Cyrus G. Richardson Estate. In this map, the lake is fed by the combined flows of West Toll Gate Creek and Coal Creek. Today these tributaries make up the Sand Creek flow as it passes by Bluff Lake Nature Center.
Carl Vincent McFadden describes in his book, Early Aurora, that by 1891, Aurora (or Fletcher as it was known in its earlier years) was cut by irrigation laterals (canals) which would make a garden spot out of the “gateway to the Rockies.” The Sand Creek lateral, an extension of the High Line Canal, fed Guthiel Park Nurseries (the current location of Fitzsimons) before going into Bluff Lake. Cyrus Richardson was a well- known lawyer, rancher and educator, originally from Maine, who owned 7,500 acres along its course. Richardson might be called the “Father of Bluff Lake.”
Richardson’s obituary described him as the owner of the Richardson and Greenwood farms. He operated the Greenwood ranch where he constructed eight reservoirs along the High Line Canal. His influence continues today because the name “Greenwood Ranch” was the inspiration for the name “Greenwood Village.”
Following her husband’s death, Mrs. Richardson managed the property with Cyrus’s nephew, Albert Packard. Packard graduated from the Harvard School of Law and specialized in tax title property. Julia made a specialty of the raising of horses, mules and cattle and in 1918 she had over 1,000 acres planted to wheat. She also raised a large amount of alfalfa. The greater part of her land was “under ditch, a most excellent irrigation system keeping it in fine condition.” Mrs. Richardson died in 1923 at the age of 91 years. She died on her ranch a mile north of Fitzsimons hospital. Among her vast holdings were 1,100 acres of irrigated land adjoining Aurora and Fitzsimons hospital, the Wheeler ranch and four sections north of Sable. In all she owned about 6,000 acres.
Plans for building an airport at the Stapleton site began as early as 1929. The 123-acre Bluff Lake area was purchased by the Aviation Department from the Clayton Institute (which was transporting the water from Bluff Lake to Clayton College
through a piping system) in the 1940′s and became part of the airport. The land became a “crash zone,” required at the end of all runways to shield the surrounding community from airplane activities. For the next fifty years, Bluff Lake remained undisturbed, surrounded by barbed wire fence and virtually ignored by Stapleton. During those fifty years, wildlife such as deer, red foxes, badgers, snakes, turtles, coyotes, owls, hawks, rabbits and a variety of waterfowl found their homes at Bluff Lake.
A New Era
After Stapleton Airport closed in 1994, Bluff Lake Natural Area was established and protected under the terms of a settlement agreement between the City and County of Denver and the Sierra Club. The Sierra Club’s successful lawsuit against Denver’s Department of Aviation was due to the inadequate retention ponds for ethanol glycol (the de-icing chemical for airplanes). During heavy rains, ethanol glycol would spill into Sand Creek and dramatically lower the dissolved oxygen levels, leading to fish kills. As part of the settlement, Denver agreed to preserve the Bluff Lake area and invest over three million dollars to enhance wildlife habitat, restore the banks of Sand Creek, build an interpretive trail system and construct open-air shelters.
The Bluff Lake area is the cornerstone of the Sand Creek Regional Greenway trail corridor along Sand Creek. The trail, which runs adjacent to Bluff Lake, will connect the Highline Canal in Aurora with the South Platte River in Denver.
Friends of Bluff Lake
While the Sierra Club legal settlement provided the Bluff Lake area with dollars for physical improvements, it lacked provisions for the development of environmental education and public programming. To fill this void, a number of citizens and representatives from various agencies and organizations, including the Denver and Aurora Public Schools, Colorado Division of Wildlife, USDA Forest Service, USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Stapleton Development Corporation and Denver Parks and Recreation, joined together to create Friends of Sand Creek in 1994. Kent Messer became the organization’s first Executive Director in 1994 and served in that capacity for three years. As the organization focused on developing educational programs for the Bluff Lake area, it changed it’s name to the “Friends of Bluff Lake.”
Immediately after its creation, Friends of Bluff Lake worked in partnership with many agencies to develop quality environmental education and to ensure the ongoing stewardship of Bluff Lake. The first education programs were offered on the site in 1995, with the aid of a team of enthusiastic young AmeriCorps NCCC members. One obstacle to getting educational programs started was an operational open-air firing range at the neighboring prison facility. Stray bullets were often found at Bluff Lake. After much negotiation, the firing range was closed one day before the educational programs began. The current bluff where the parking lot now sits was being redeveloped, and visitors would enter through maintenance gates on the east side of the property.
The year 2000 brought many changes. In January of 2000, Friends of Bluff Lake entered into a management contract with the Denver’s Department of Aviation (still the land owner) and now had full management authority of Bluff Lake Natural Area. The contract included all site maintenance, natural resource management, security and interpretation. In May of 2000, Friends of Bluff Lake changed its name to Bluff Lake Nature Center.
Visitor amenities include a paved parking lot, restrooms, a trellised overlook with benches, interpretive signage, handicapped accessible trails, a xeriscape garden and an interpretive amphitheater. In addition, the eastern bluffs have undergone extensive restoration after serving as a dumping area for excess airport concrete.
BLNC ~ Today
The history is obviously rich, but 2008 brought one of the most significant developments: Denver’s Department of Aviation transferred ownership of the property to Bluff Lake Nature Center. This means that BLNC will be able to continue stewardship of and education at the site for generations to come.
Partnerships continue to drive the work at Bluff Lake Nature Center. Science education programs improve academics with more than 5,000 schoolchildren from Denver, Aurora, and Adams County Public Schools visiting Bluff Lake annually. A partnership with the Denver Botanic Gardens has driven restoration efforts through the property, and a newer partnership with The Nature Conservancy of Colorado will benefit the organization for years to come.
As the Stapleton Redevelopment continues to approach Bluff Lake’s boundaries, visitor numbers continue to rise. Bluff Lake will offer Fireside Chats throughout the summer, and anticipates 400 people will attend these events. More than 120 children will participate in one of six weekly Junior Naturalist camps, and two projects will bring 50 volunteers out at a time to focus on restoring the land. An increase in visitors precipitates more of a staff and volunteer presence at the site. Plans are in the works for Bluff Lake Nature Center to construct a 5,000 square-foot Environmental Education Center. The Center will sit on top of the bluff, facing west, and overlooking the lake and wetlands. When complete, Bluff Lake Nature Center’s offices will be housed in the facility, and a new era at Bluff Lake will take flight.
In 2013, Bluff Lake Nature Center received the largest grant win in the history of the organization: $500,00 from The State of Colorado’s Lowry Landfill Superfund Site Natural Resources Damages (NRD) Fund. This grant will help us achieve water in the lake year-round and reinforcing our 100 year-old dam. Please check back for more updates on this ongoing project!